Compartment syndrome is an orthopedic emergency. Leg compartment syndrome occurs when the pressure within the front, back, or outer leg compartments rises above the blood pressure needed for the heart to pump blood to the thigh. When this occurs, the muscles and nerves within the compartment are at risk of dying with little or no chance of recovery. Leg compartment syndrome usually occurs after some sort of trauma such as a fall with or without a fracture. Patients may complain of increasing pain, pain that is out of proportion to the injury, and increase in pain medication requirements, numbness, tingling, or no symptoms at all. The leg may feel tense, the patient may have pain with stretch of the muscles affected, there may be a loss of sensation in the leg, a cool feeling of the skin, loss of pulses in ankle, or loss of function of the leg muscles. Because the signs and symptoms can be variable, physicians must maintain a high index of suspicion if the patient’s complaints and injury history are consistent with a compartment syndrome.